Finance: Define and discuss the concepts of risk and return

Finance:Define and discuss the concepts of risk and return. Also discuss the importance of portfolio diversification and the relationship to risk and return.Discuss beta and its importance. What type of investors would invest in a high beta stock and a low beta stock? Also, in your textbook, review the Real World case, focusing on “Beta, Beta, Who’s Got the Beta?,” on page 343. Is beta a useful tool? Why were the beta estimates discussed in the reading different?Select two of the many capital structure concepts such as Modigliani and Miller, Pecking Order Theory, leverage, and so on, and explain what each is as well as how it differs from the other concept you selected. Then, step back and discuss why it is important for managers or leaders to optimize their capital structure.Consider dividend policy, stock repurchases, and stock splits. Discuss how investors may react differently if their company issues dividends or announces a stock split or stock repurchase. Feel free to include examples to illustrate your point.Identify some political and currency risks of India and discuss why a U.S. company would invest (for example, build a factory) in that country. Also discuss some of the various international finance topics such as the foreign exchange market, purchasing power parity, interest rate parity, cross rates, and so on. Why is it important for international firms to understand these concepts?Supply Chain:Product design can be conducted by two major procedures: Concurrent engineering & Sequential engineering. Which type of product development effort would be better suited to concurrent engineering—a radically new product involving cutting-edge product engineering technologies or the latest version of an existing product? Explain. In addition, there are several approaches to product design, including parts standardization and modularity. How do these two approaches relate to the dimensions of product design? Is modularity generally more suitable for parts design and modularity?What are the advantages of having computer-based forecasting packages handle forecasting? What are the differences between using linear regression to develop a time series forecasting model and a causal forecasting model? Are highly experienced managers able to forecast equally or better than computers using heuristics? Given your response to the previous question, what are the implications for the role of managers and computers in forecasting?What are some advantages and disadvantages of JIT and lean production? Why do you think many firms are experiencing an increase in JIT and lean production? Are there organizational issues that enter the decision to lower inventory level? How do you feel about the stakeholders whose interests are damaged by maintaining lower inventories?If a firm is using sales and operations planning (S&OP) to coordinate marketing and operations, does it need master planning such as ERP or ERP2? How are S&OP and master planning similar? How do S&OP and master planning differ? What are the advantages of other computer software operations and supply chain management software such as MRP, MRP2, and DRP?

 

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